23 Duxton Hill – Duxton

23. Duxton Hill – Duxton Hill is a small hill, as well as the name of a road, located in Tanjong Pagar in the Downtown Core district of Singapore. The road leads from Tanjong Pagar Road to the peak of the hill, Duxton Road is a one-way road linking Neil Road to Craig Road. Duxton was the name of one of his two dwelling houses in the area, namely the Craig Hill and Duxton House, Duxton House was built by Hugh Syme and was home to Montgomerie and his family. After Montgomeries death, the property was auctioned to Ker, Rawson and Company in 1856, fourteen acres also went to Arab Syed Abdullah bin Omar Aljunied, who divided them into four lots which were leased to wealthy Chinese developers. Duxton Road, Duxton Hill and Craig Road were presumably constructed after the 1856 sale, at the time, the area was still called Duxton Hill. Later the Reverend J. T. Dickenson built a home here, now the Kreta Ayer Community Centre. Opium and gambling dens, as well as brothels, used to flourish on Duxton Road, and one writer describes it as a slum area. These places were patronised by the rickshaw coolies who lived in Duxton Road, many of the rickshaw pullers came from Hui Ann county, in China, and they bore surnames such as Teo, Ho and Chng. Because of the strong ties, the rickshaw pullers created their own area of land. Such fights made Duxton Hill and Duxton Road a dreaded area, to make matters worse, the slums were home to criminal elements. Whenever the residents in Duxton Road had disputes, the Hui Ann Association was asked to be the mediator, despite the notoriety of the street, many wealthy Straits Chinese families built and occupied lofty and exquisitely designed residences and shophouses on Duxton Hill. Duxton Road is known to the Hokkiens as gu chia chui kia, meaning at the side of Kreta Ayer, the road was also known colloquially as kampong kia nai in Hokkien, meaning within a small village. This term was used to refer to the slum dwellings of the rickshaw pullers. Today, Duxton Hill and Duxton Road have been conserved by the Urban Redevelopment Authority, many restored two and three-storey shophouses and terrace houses still exist on Duxton Road and Duxton Hill. Buildings in the vicinity of Duxton Hill include the Craig Place, Chinatown Plaza and Apartments, a section of Duxton Hill has been converted into a pedestrian mall. The Berjaya Duxton Hotel, also known as Duxton Hotel on Duxton Road, inside many of the conserved shophouses are redlight district bars. In Duxton Park, now known as Duxton Plain Park, which extends from New Bridge Road to the former Yan Kit Swimming Pool, a keramat is a Malay sacred place, usually a grave site of a holy person.

24. Internet – The Internet is the global system of interconnected computer networks that use the Internet protocol suite to link devices worldwide. The origins of the Internet date back to research commissioned by the United States federal government in the 1960s to build robust, the primary precursor network, the ARPANET, initially served as a backbone for interconnection of regional academic and military networks in the 1980s. Although the Internet was widely used by academia since the 1980s, Internet use grew rapidly in the West from the mid-1990s and from the late 1990s in the developing world. In the two decades since then, Internet use has grown 100-times, measured for the period of one year, newspaper, book, and other print publishing are adapting to website technology, or are reshaped into blogging, web feeds and online news aggregators. The entertainment industry was initially the fastest growing segment on the Internet, the Internet has enabled and accelerated new forms of personal interactions through instant messaging, Internet forums, and social networking. Business-to-business and financial services on the Internet affect supply chains across entire industries, the Internet has no centralized governance in either technological implementation or policies for access and usage, each constituent network sets its own policies. The term Internet, when used to refer to the global system of interconnected Internet Protocol networks, is a proper noun. In common use and the media, it is not capitalized. Some guides specify that the word should be capitalized when used as a noun, the Internet is also often referred to as the Net, as a short form of network. Historically, as early as 1849, the word internetted was used uncapitalized as an adjective, the designers of early computer networks used internet both as a noun and as a verb in shorthand form of internetwork or internetworking, meaning interconnecting computer networks. The terms Internet and World Wide Web are often used interchangeably in everyday speech, however, the World Wide Web or the Web is only one of a large number of Internet services. The Web is a collection of interconnected documents and other web resources, linked by hyperlinks, the term Interweb is a portmanteau of Internet and World Wide Web typically used sarcastically to parody a technically unsavvy user. The ARPANET project led to the development of protocols for internetworking, the third site was the Culler-Fried Interactive Mathematics Center at the University of California, Santa Barbara, followed by the University of Utah Graphics Department. In an early sign of growth, fifteen sites were connected to the young ARPANET by the end of 1971. These early years were documented in the 1972 film Computer Networks, early international collaborations on the ARPANET were rare. European developers were concerned with developing the X.25 networks, in December 1974, RFC675, by Vinton Cerf, Yogen Dalal, and Carl Sunshine, used the term internet as a shorthand for internetworking and later RFCs repeated this use. Access to the ARPANET was expanded in 1981 when the National Science Foundation funded the Computer Science Network, in 1982, the Internet Protocol Suite was standardized, which permitted worldwide proliferation of interconnected networks.5 Mbit/s and 45 Mbit/s. Commercial Internet service providers emerged in the late 1980s and early 1990s, the ARPANET was decommissioned in 1990.

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